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Chief among these tribes were the Lusitanians, with the core area of these people lying in inland central Portugal, other related tribes existed such as the Gallaeci of Northern Portugal, the Celtici of Alentejo, and the Cynetes or Conii of the Algarve.

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Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing.He would later be proclaimed King of Portugal at the Battle of Ourique in 1139 and was recognised as such by neighbouring kingdoms in 1143.During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King João II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope (1488), Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India (1497–98) and the European discovery of Brazil (1500).Portugal monopolized the spice trade during this time, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia.However, events such as the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil (1822), and the Liberal Wars (1828–34), left Portugal crippled from war and diminished in its world power.After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, later being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.

Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974, ending the Portuguese Colonial War.

Later, a northern province of Lusitania was formed, known as Gallaecia, with capital in Bracara Augusta, today's Braga.

There are still many ruins of castros (hill forts) all over modern Portugal and remains of Castro culture.

Being the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest European nation-states, the territory of modern Portugal has been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

The Pre-Celts, Celts, Carthaginians and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples.

A few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements (such as Tavira) were also founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians.