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According to this account, individuals monitor themselves after three stages of the speech production process: message retrieval, phonological encoding, and articulation.Like any other action, fluent and correct speaking requires self-monitoring.For many years, the dominant theory of monitoring in speech production has been the Perceptual Loop Theory (Levelt, 1983), in which signals from different stages of production planning are sent through the comprehension system and compared to an intended message.A number of recent studies have hypothesized that monitoring in speech production may occur via domain-general mechanisms responsible for the detection of response conflict.Outside of language, two ERP components have consistently been elicited in conflict-inducing tasks (e.g., the flanker task): the stimulus-locked N2 on correct trials, and the response-locked error-related negativity (ERN).Behavioral results showed typical effects of both tasks, with increased error rates and slower speech onset times for TT relative to non-TT trials and for incongruent relative to congruent flanker trials.

In the flanker task, stimulus-locked EEG analyses replicated previous results, with a larger N2 for incongruent relative to congruent trials, and a response-locked ERN.

Recent studies that have examined neural correlates of action monitoring with event-related potentials (ERPs) have focused on the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) on error trials, as well as the correct response negativity (CRN) on correct trials.

Moreover, the ERN has been assessed in relation to a number of personality traits and psychiatric disorders.

In the TT task, people rapidly read sequences of four nonwords arranged in TT and non-TT patterns three times.

In the flanker task, people responded with a left/right button press to a center-facing arrow, and conflict was manipulated by the congruency of the flanking arrows.

In the TT task, stimulus-locked analyses revealed broad, frontally-distributed differences beginning around 50 ms and lasting until just before speech initiation, with TT trials more negative than non-TT trials; response-locked analyses revealed an ERN.