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Draiver sd needs updating plase use bus tupe methods

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In addition to being non-volatile, flash memory offers fast read access times, although not as fast as static RAM or ROM.

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NOR-type flash allows a single machine word (byte) to be written – to an erased location – or read independently.Once the FG is charged, the electrons in it screen (partially cancel) the electric field from the CG, thus, increasing the threshold voltage (V), and hence, a logical "1" is stored in the gate.If the channel does not conduct at the intermediate voltage, it indicates that the FG is charged, and hence, a logical "0" is stored in the gate.Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.Toshiba developed flash memory from EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) in the early 1980s and introduced it to the market in 1984.However, the I/O interface of NAND flash does not provide a random-access external address bus.

Rather, data must be read on a block-wise basis, with typical block sizes of hundreds to thousands of bits.

One key disadvantage of flash memory is that it can only endure a relatively small number of write cycles in a specific block.

Example applications of both types of flash memory include personal computers, PDAs, digital audio players, digital cameras, mobile phones, synthesizers, video games, scientific instrumentation, industrial robotics, and medical electronics.

The FG is interposed between the CG and the MOSFET channel.

Because the FG is electrically isolated by its insulating layer, electrons placed on it are trapped until they are removed by another application of electric field (e.g. Counter-intuitively, placing electrons on the FG sets the transistor to the logical "0" state.

Multi-level cell (MLC) devices, including triple-level cell (TLC) devices, can store more than one bit per cell.