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OSA refer to the Internet use for any activity that involves sexuality for the purposes of recreation, entertainment, exploration, support, education, commerce and/or seeking out sexual or romantic partners (Boies, 2004).
To date, to the best of our knowledge, no review articles have been published that provide a systematic outline of questionnaires and scales for the evaluation in this field. The consequences may involve feelings of guilt, loss of a job/relationship, higher risk of sexually transmitted infections, among others. Methodological challenges in research on sexual risk behavior: II. Clinicians and educators are increasingly being called upon to offer advice and counselling to clients and families about problems stemming from Internet use (Mitchell, Sabina, Finkelhor, & Wells, 2009). In Figure 1, a flow chart of study selection procedure is provided. Internet use and sexual health of young men who have sex with men: A mixed-methods study. Although many instruments are adequate for their own purposes, our review revealed a lack of standardized, internationally (culturally) acceptable questionnaires that are truly epidemiologically validated in general populations and that can be used to investigate OSA and to assess OSP. The great majority of the studies, in fact, were carried out using data taken from surveys and questionnaires posted on websites, that were not evaluated on their psychometric properties (Albright, 2008; Boies, Cooper, & Osborne, 2004; Cooper, Griffin-Shelly, Delmonico, & Mathy, 2001; Cooper, Månnson, Daneback, Tikkanen, & Ross, 2003; Cooper, Scherer, & Mathy, 2004; Corley & Hook, 2012; Daneback, Cooper, & Månsson, 2005; Daneback, Månsson, & Ross, 2007; Grov, Gillespie, Royce, & Lever, 2011; Ross, Daneback, Månsson, Tikkanen, & Cooper, 2003; Ross, Månsson, & Daneback, 2012).
Mc Kenna, Green, and Smith (2001) created some indexes from their 25-item survey, however they did not provide psychometric properties for the overall questionnaire, so it is difficult to use it as a tool to efficaciously evaluate OSA. Index of problematic online experiences: item characteristics and correlation with negative symptomatology.
The most researched area to date has been the consumption of Internet pornography, which also has the greatest intensity of use compared to the other areas of Internet sexuality (cybersex, sex shop, sex education).
In terms of methodology, current studies span a broad spectrum with respect to data collection: interviews, questionnaires, observations, content analyses, and Internet log file recordings have all been used.
The empirical literature on measuring OSA is still relatively sparse.
One difficulty in measuring these behaviors derives from the fact that cybersex addiction has not yet any official diagnostic criteria, so decisions for item inclusion and diagnostic thresholds may be decided ad hoc.
The search was limited to English-language papers in which evaluation of some kind of OSA and/or cybersexual addiction diagnosis were described.