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An operator, opening and closing the shutter, could produce short and long flashes to spell out messages in Morse code..It employed two adjustable mirrors so arranged that a beam of light from the sun could be reflected in any direction.
In addition to its employment in spanning long distances under the civilian-manned military telegraph organization, mobile field service was provided in the Union army by wagon trains equipped with insulated wire and lightweight poles for the rapid laying of telegraph lines.This led to the development of extensive and complicated The onset of World War I found the opposing armies equipped to a varying degree with modern means of signal communication but with little appreciation of the enormous load that signal systems must carry to maintain control of the huge forces that were set in motion.The organization and efficiency of the armies varied greatly.from reconnaissance and other units in contact with the enemy and the means for exercising command by the transmission of orders and instructions of commanders to their subordinates.As such, it comprises all means of transmitting messages, orders, and reports, both in the field and at sea and between headquarters and distant installations or ships.They were thus able to maintain contact with their homelands during their far-flung campaigns and to transmit messages with surprising speed. As he advanced upon his conquests he established pigeon relay posts across Asia and much of eastern Europe.
He was thus able to use these messengers to transmit instructions to his capital for the governing of his distant dominions.
The French used deep buried cable to some extent but generally preferred to string their telephone lines on wooden supports set against the walls of deep open trenches.
Thus electrical communication in the form of the telephone and telegraph gradually extended to the smaller units until front-line platoons were frequently kept in touch with their company headquarters through these mediums.
Later Sir Home Popham increased the effectiveness of ship-to-ship communication by improved methods of flag signaling. The development of the of dots and dashes used with key and sounder was soon used to augment the various means of visual signaling.
Vice Admiral Philip Colomb’s flash signaling, adopted in the British navy in 1867, was an adaptation of the Morse code to lights.
An intricate system of telephone lines involving thousands of miles of wire soon appeared on each side.